34 minute read


Introduction to SQLAlchemy

SQLAlchemy provides two major modes of usage:

  • SQLAlchemy Core: SQL Expression Language, a Pythonic way of representing common SQL statements and expressions, and is only a mild abstraction from the typical SQL language.
  • SQLAlchemy ORM: Object Relational Mapper
    • Built on top of SQLAlchemy Core
    • Focused around the domain model of the application and leverages the Unit of Work pattern to maintain object state.

By default, SQLAlchemy will support SQLite3 with no additional drivers; however, an additional database driver that uses the standard Python DBAPI (PEP-249) specification is needed to connect to other databases.

To connect to a database, we need to create a SQLAlchemy engine. The SQLAlchemy engine creates a common interface to the database to execute SQL statements by wrapping a pool of database connections and a dialect in such a way that they can work together to provide uniform access to the backend database. E.g.,

from sqlalchemy import create_engine

engine = create_engine('postgresql+psycopg2://username:password@localhost:5432/mydb')

Note that I use postgresql+psycopg2 as the engine and dialect components of the connection string, even though using only postgres will work. Better to be explicit instead of implicit.

Use pool_recycle to define how often to recycle the connections (by default, MySQL closes connections idle for more than 8 hours):

engine = create_engine('mysql+pymysql://cookiemonster:chocolatechip@mysql01.monster.internal/cookies', pool_recycle=3600)

Once we have an engine initialized, we are ready to actually open a connection to the database. That is done by calling the connect() method on the engine as shown here:

connection = engine.connect()

PART I - SQLAlchemy Core

Chapter 1 - Schema and Types

In order to provide access to the underlying database, SQLAlchemy needs a representation of the tables that should be present in the database. We can do this in one of three ways:

  • Using user-defined Table objects
  • Using declarative classes that represent your tables
  • Inferring them from the database

This chapter focuses on the first of these, as that is the approach used with SQLAlchemy Core; we’ll cover the other two options in later chapters.

1.1 Types

There are four categories of types we can use inside of SQLAlchemy:

  • SQLAlchemy Generic
  • SQL standard
  • Vendor-specific
  • User-defined

SQLAlchemy generic types hide minor details in backend databases from you. E.g., some databases don’t support a BOOLEAN type and use SMALLINT instead. In SQLAlchemy, there is only one BOOLEAN type and it works for all these databases.

SQLAlchemy Generic Python SQL
BigInteger int BIGINT
Boolean bool BOOLEAN or SMALLINT
Date datetime.date DATE (SQLite: STRING)
DateTime datetime.datetime DATETIME (SQLite: STRING)
Enum str ENUM or VARCHAR
Float float or Decimal FLOAT or REAL
Integer int INTEGER
Interval datetime.timedelta INTERVAL or DATE from epoch
LargeBinary byte BLOB or BYTEA
Numeric decimal.Decimal NUMERIC or DECIMAL
Unicode unicode UNICODE or VARCHAR
Text str CLOB or TEXT

SQL standard types are available both within sqlalchemy and sqlalchemy.types module and, to distinguish from the generic types, they are all in capital letters. E.g., CHAR and NVARCHAR.

Vendor-specific types are available within sqlalchemy.dialects.xxx modules where xxx is the database name. Vendor-specific types are also all in capital letters. E.g.:

from sqlalchemy.dialects.postgresql import JSON

1.2 Metadata

Metadata is used to tie together the database structure so it can be quickly accessed inside SQLAlchemy.

All Table objects associated with the same metadata object can be accessed via metadata.tables, which is a dictionary.

Read operations are thread-safe; however, table construction is not completely thread-safe.

1.3 Tables

A full in-memory SQLite example:

from datetime import datetime
from sqlalchemy import MetaData, Table, Column, Integer, Numeric, String, DateTime, ForeignKey, create_engine

metadata = MetaData()

cookies = Table('cookies', metadata,
    Column('cookie_id', Integer(), primary_key=True),
    Column('cookie_name', String(50), index=True),
    Column('cookie_recipe_url', String(255)),
    Column('cookie_sku', String(55)),
    Column('quantity', Integer()),
    Column('unit_cost', Numeric(12, 2))

users = Table('users', metadata,
    Column('user_id', Integer(), primary_key=True),
    Column('customer_number', Integer(), autoincrement=True),
    Column('username', String(15), nullable=False, unique=True),
    Column('email_address', String(255), nullable=False),
    Column('phone', String(20), nullable=False),
    Column('password', String(25), nullable=False),
    Column('created_on', DateTime(), default=datetime.now),
    Column('updated_on', DateTime(), default=datetime.now, onupdate=datetime.now)

orders = Table('orders', metadata,
    Column('order_id', Integer(), primary_key=True),
    Column('user_id', ForeignKey('users.user_id'))

line_items = Table('line_items', metadata,
    Column('line_items_id', Integer(), primary_key=True),
    Column('order_id', ForeignKey('orders.order_id')),
    Column('cookie_id', ForeignKey('cookies.cookie_id')),
    Column('quantity', Integer()),
    Column('extended_cost', Numeric(12, 2))

engine = create_engine('sqlite:///:memory:')


By default, create_all will not attempt to re-create tables that already exist in the database, and it is safe to run multiple times.

1.3.1 Primary Keys

The above example uses column keyword arguments to define table constructs and constraints; however, it is also possible to declare them outside of a Column object. This is critical when you are working with an existing database.

E.g., prime keys can be defined via Column(..., primary_key=True) or Table(..., PrimaryKeyConstrain(...)).

from sqlalchemy import PrimaryKeyConstraint

my_table = Table('mytable', metadata,
    Column('id', Integer, primary_key=True),
    Column('version_id', Integer, primary_key=True),  # composite primary key
    Column('data', String(50))

# ----- IS EQUIVALENT TO -----

my_table = Table('mytable', metadata,
    Column('id', Integer),
    Column('version_id', Integer),
    Column('data', String(50)),
    PrimaryKeyConstraint('id', 'version_id', name='mytable_pk')  # `name` enables explicit access to this constraint


1.3.2 Unique and check Constraints

Similarly on unique constraints and check constraints:

from sqlalchemy import UniqueConstraint, CheckConstraint

mytable = Table('mytable', meta,
    Column('col1', Integer, unique=True),
    Column('col2', Integer, CheckConstraint('col2>5')),

# ----- IS EQUIVALENT TO ----- #

mytable = Table('mytable', meta,
    Column('col1', Integer),
    Column('col2', Integer),

    UniqueConstraint('col1', name='uix_1')  # `name` is optional
    CheckConstraint('col2 > 5', name='check1')


Composite check constraints are possible, e.g. CheckConstraint('col2 > col3 + 5').

1.3.3 Indices

Indices can be created in 3 ways:

  • Column(..., index=True) (This index will have an auto-generated name “ix_<column label>”)
  • ② Inside a Table(...) statement
  • ③ Outside a Table(...) statement
mytable = Table('mytable', meta,
    Column('col1', Integer, index=True),  # ①
    Column('col2', Integer, index=True, unique=True),  # ①

    Column('col3', Integer),
    Column('col4', Integer),

    Column('col5', Integer),
    Column('col6', Integer),

    # Composite Indices
    Index('idx_col34', 'col3', 'col4'),  # ②
    Index('idx_col56', 'col5', 'col6', unique=True)  # ②

    Column('col7', Integer),
    Column('col8', Integer),

    Column('col9', Integer),
    Column('col10', Integer),

Index('idx_col78', mytable.c.col7, mytable.c.col8)  # ③
Index('myindex', mytable.c.col9, mytable.c.col10, unique=True)  # ③


The Index object also supports its own create() method:

i = Index('someindex', mytable.c.col5)

1.3.4 Foreign Keys

There are two ways to build a foreign key constraint tb_A.col_x $\Leftrightarrow$ tb_B.col_y:

tb_A = Table('tb_A', metadata,
    Column('col_x', Integer, ForeignKey('tb_B.col_y'))

# ----- IS EQUIVALENT TO ----- # 

tb_A = Table('tb_A', metadata,
    Column('col_x', Integer),

    # Composite foreign keys are possible, so use a list of column IDs here
    ForeignKeyConstraint(['col_x'], ['tb_B.col_y'], name='fk_xy')

Using strings instead of an actual column allows us to separate the table definitions across multiple modules and not have to worry about the order in which our tables are loaded. This is because SQLAlchemy will only perform the resolution of that string to a table name and column the first time it is accessed. If we use hard references, such as mytable.c.col9, in our ForeignKey definitions, it will perform that resolution during module initialization and could fail depending on the order in which the tables are loaded.

Chapter 2 - Working with Data via SQLAlchemy Core

2.1 Inserting Data

ins = cookies.insert().values(
    cookie_name="chocolate chip",

# Output: 
    (cookie_name, cookie_recipe_url, cookie_sku, quantity, unit_cost)
    (:cookie_name, :cookie_recipe_url, :cookie_sku, :quantity, :unit_cost)

Our supplied values have been replaced with :column_name in this SQL statement, which is how SQLAlchemy represents parameters displayed via the str() function. Parameters are used to help ensure that our data has been properly escaped, which mitigates security issues such as SQL injection attacks.

The compile() method on the ins object returns a SQLCompiler object that gives us access to the actual parameters that will be sent with the query via the params attribute:


# Output: 
    'cookie_name': 'chocolate chip',
    'cookie_recipe_url': 'http://some.aweso.me/cookie/recipe.html',
    'cookie_sku': 'CC01',
    'quantity': '12',
    'unit_cost': '0.50'

To execute this query:

result = connection.execute(ins)

We can also get the ID of the record we just inserted by accessing:


Another way of executing:

ins = cookies.insert()
result = connection.execute(ins,
    cookie_name="chocolate chip",

It’s also possible to pass a list of records to execute:

inventory_list = [
        'cookie_name': 'peanut butter',
        'cookie_recipe_url': 'http://some.aweso.me/cookie/peanut.html',
        'cookie_sku': 'PB01',
        'quantity': '24',
        'unit_cost': '0.25'
        'cookie_name': 'oatmeal raisin',
        'cookie_recipe_url': 'http://some.okay.me/cookie/raisin.html',
        'cookie_sku': 'EWW01',
        'quantity': '100',
        'unit_cost': '1.00'

result = connection.execute(ins, inventory_list)

When the Table object is not initially known, we can use top-level function ins = insert(table) instead of ins = table.insert():

from sqlalchemy import insert

ins = insert(cookies).values(
    cookie_name="chocolate chip",

For example, our company might run two separate divisions, each with its own separate inventory tables. Using the insert function above would allow us to use one statement and just swap the tables.

2.2 Querying Data

from sqlalchemy.sql import select

s = select([cookies])
rp = connection.execute(s)  # ResultProxy
results = rp.fetchall()

The select method expects a list of columns to select; however, for convenience, it also accepts Table objects and selects all the columns on the table.

It is also OK to use s = table.select().

2.2.1 ResultProxy

results = rp.fetchall()

first_row = results[0]  # first row
first_row[1]  # access column by index
first_row.cookie_name  # access column by name
first_row[cookies.c.cookie_name]  # access column by `Column` object
s = select([cookies.c.cookie_name, cookies.c.quantity])
rp = connection.execute(s)
print(rp.keys())  # column names

# output: 
#   ['cookie_name', 'quantity'] 
record = rp.first()
print(record.items())  # A list of `(column_name, value)`

2.2.2 Ordering

s = select([cookies.c.cookie_name, cookies.c.quantity])
s = s.order_by(cookies.c.quantity)

from sqlalchemy import desc
s = s.order_by(desc(cookies.c.quantity))

2.2.3 Limiting

s = select([cookies.c.cookie_name, cookies.c.quantity])
s = s.order_by(cookies.c.quantity)
s = s.limit(2)

2.2.4 Built-In SQL Functions and Labels

SQLAlchemy can also leverage SQL functions found in the backend database. Two very commonly used database functions are SUM() and COUNT(). To use these functions, we need to import the sqlalchemy.sql.func module where they are found.

from sqlalchemy.sql import func

s = select([func.sum(cookies.c.quantity)])
rp = connection.execute(s)
print(rp.scalar())  # `scalar()` returns a single value if a query results in a single record with one column.
s = select([func.count(cookies.c.cookie_name)])
rp = connection.execute(s)
record = rp.first()
print(record.keys())  # ['count_1']

The COUNT() column name is autogenerated and is commonly <func_name>_<position>. This column name is annoying and cumbersome. Thankfully, SQLAlchemy provides a way to fix this via the label() function, which could give us a more useful name to this column.

s = select([func.count(cookies.c.cookie_name).label('inventory_count')])
rp = connection.execute(s)
record = rp.first()
print(record.keys())  # ['inventory_count']

2.2.5 Filtering

s = select([cookies]).where(cookies.c.cookie_name == 'chocolate chip')

s = select([cookies]).where(cookies.c.cookie_name.like('%chocolate%'))

2.2.6 ClauseElement

ClauseElements are just an entity we use in a clause, and they are typically columns; however, ClauseElements also come with many methods just like like above.

  • between(left, right)
  • concat(column_two): Concatenate column with column_two
  • distinct()
  • in_([list])
  • is_(None)
  • contains(string)
  • startswith(string)
  • endswith(string)
  • like(string)
  • ilike(string): case-insensitive

There are also negative versions of these methods, such as notlike() and notin_(). The only exception to the not<method> naming convention is the isnot() method, which also drops the underscore.

If we don’t use one of the methods listed, then we will have an operator in our where clauses, e.g. ==.

2.2.7 Operators

== None will be converted to IS NULL.

+-*, / can be used to do colum-wise arithmetic:

from sqlalchemy import cast
s = select([cookies.c.cookie_name, 
            cast(cookies.c.quantity * cookies.c.unit_cost,

# Cast() is a function that allows us to convert types 

+ can also be used to concatenate a string to all values of a column:

s = select([cookies.c.cookie_name, 'SKU-' + cookies.c.cookie_sku])
for row in connection.execute(s):

# Output: 
('chocolate chip', 'SKU-CC01')
('dark chocolate chip', 'SKU-CC02')
('peanut butter', 'SKU-PB01')
('oatmeal raisin', 'SKU-EWW01')

AND, OR and NOT are supported by &, | and ~. However, the precedence rules need special care. E.g. A < B & C < D is actually A < (B & C) < D. USe conjuncations in such cases.

2.2.8 Conjunctions

AND, OR and NOT are also supported by and_(), or_() and not_():

from sqlalchemy import and_, or_, not_

s = select([cookies]).where(
        cookies.c.quantity > 23,
        cookies.c.unit_cost < 0.40

s = select([cookies]).where(
        cookies.c.quantity.between(10, 50),

2.3 Updating Data

from sqlalchemy import update

u = update(cookies).where(cookies.c.cookie_name == "chocolate chip")
u = u.values(quantity=(cookies.c.quantity + 120))

result = connection.execute(u)

print(result.rowcount)  # print how many rows were updated

2.4 Deleting Data

from sqlalchemy import delete

u = delete(cookies).where(cookies.c.cookie_name == "dark chocolate chip")

result = connection.execute(u)

print(result.rowcount)  # print how many rows were deleted

2.5 Joins

Typically, select(table.c.column) would genereate an SQL statement SELECT table.column FROM table. We can apply select(table.c.column).select_from('XXX') to set the FROM clause to FROM XXX. This can be used together with joins.

columns = [orders.c.order_id, users.c.username, users.c.phone,
           cookies.c.cookie_name, line_items.c.quantity,
cookiemon_orders = select(columns)
cookiemon_orders = cookiemon_orders.select_from(orders.join(users).join(line_items).join(cookies)).where(users.c.username == 'cookiemon')

result = connection.execute(cookiemon_orders).fetchall()

for row in result:

The SQL generated is like:

SELECT orders.order_id, users.username, users.phone, cookies.cookie_name, line_items.quantity, line_items.extended_cost 
FROM users 
     JOIN orders ON users.user_id = orders.user_id 
     JOIN line_items ON orders.order_id = line_items.order_id 
     JOIN cookies ON cookies.cookie_id = line_items.cookie_id
WHERE users.username = 'cookiemon'

Similarly, we have outjoin:

columns = [users.c.username, func.count(orders.c.order_id)]
all_orders = select(columns)
all_orders = all_orders.select_from(users.outerjoin(orders))
# SQLAlchemy knows how to join the users and orders tables because of the foreign key defined in the orders table. 
all_orders = all_orders.group_by(users.c.username)

result = connection.execute(all_orders).fetchall()

for row in result:

2.6 Aliases

Suppose we have a table:

employee_table = Table(
    'employee', metadata,
    Column('id', Integer, primary_key=True),
    Column('manager', None, ForeignKey('employee.id')),
    Column('name', String(255)))

and we want to query:

SELECT employee.name
FROM employee, employee AS manager
WHERE employee.manager_id = manager.id
      AND manager.name = 'Fred'

We can do:

manager = employee_table.alias('mgr')
stmt = select([employee_table.c.name]).where(and_(employee_table.c.manager_id==manager.c.id, manager.c.name=='Fred'))

the statement generated is:

SELECT employee.name
FROM employee, employee AS mgr
WHERE employee.manager_id = mgr.id AND mgr.name = 'Fred'

SQLAlchemy can also choose the alias name automatically, which is useful for guaranteeing that there are no name collisions:

# manager = employee_table.alias('mgr') 
# You never used the string 'mgr' in your python code so you don't have to care what it is. 
manager = employee_table.alias()

2.7 Grouping

columns = [users.c.username, func.count(orders.c.order_id)]
all_orders = select(columns)
all_orders = all_orders.select_from(users.outerjoin(orders))
all_orders = all_orders.group_by(users.c.username)

result = connection.execute(all_orders).fetchall()

for row in result:

2.8 Chaining Clauses


columns = [orders.c.order_id, users.c.username, users.c.phone]
joins = users.join(orders)

cust_orders = select(columns)
cust_orders = cust_orders.select_from(joins)

cust_orders = cust_orders.where(users.c.username == cust_name)
cust_orders = cust_orders.where(orders.c.shipped == shipped)  # Chain another .where() method

Chained .where() generates AND logic.

It’s implementation:

# ----- https://github.com/zzzeek/sqlalchemy/blob/master/lib/sqlalchemy/sql/base.py#L41 ---- # 

def _generative(fn, *args, **kw):
    """Mark a method as generative."""

    self = args[0]._generate()
    fn(self, *args[1:], **kw)
    return self
# ----- https://github.com/zzzeek/sqlalchemy/blob/master/lib/sqlalchemy/sql/selectable.py#L3164 ----- # 

class Select(HasPrefixes, HasSuffixes, GenerativeSelect):
    def where(self, whereclause):
        """return a new select() construct with the given expression added to
        its WHERE clause, joined to the existing clause via AND, if any.


    def append_whereclause(self, whereclause):
        """append the given expression to this select() construct's WHERE
        The expression will be joined to existing WHERE criterion via AND.
        This is an **in-place** mutation method; the
        :meth:`~.Select.where` method is preferred, as it provides standard
        :term:`method chaining`.

        self._whereclause = and_(
            True_._ifnone(self._whereclause), whereclause)

2.9 Raw Queries

It still returns a ResultProxy:

result = connection.execute("select * from orders").fetchall()


While I rarely use a full raw SQL statement, I will often use small text snippets to help make a query clearer.

from sqlalchemy import text

stmt = select([users]).where(text("username='cookiemon'"))


Chapter 3 - Exceptions and Transactions

3.1 Exceptions

Most common ones are AttributeErrors and IntegrityErrors

  • AttributeError often occurs when you attempt to access an attribute that doesn’t exist.
  • IntegrityError occurs when we try to do something that would violate the constraints configured on a Column or Table.

3.2 Transactions

transaction = connection.begin()


except IntegrityError as error:

Chapter 4 - Testing

This chapter covers how to perform functional tests against a database, and how to mock out SQLAlchemy queries and connections.

你记住 url 可以用 'sqlite:///:memory:' 这样的纯 in-memory 的数据库就可以了。剩下的无非是动态创建表、添加测试数据之类的,并没有什么简单的方法,setup 的代码量还是会远超测试逻辑本身。

另外 python 3 的 unittest 自带 mock,需要用的时候再研究。

from unittest import mock

Chapter 5 - Reflection

For testing, we use Chinook database here:

The Chinook data model represents a digital media store, including tables for artists, albums, media tracks, invoices and customers.

Schema can be found here.

5.1 Reflecting Individual Tables

Artists table stores artists data. It is a simple table that contains only two columns, ArtistId and Name. Here we construct a Table object by reflection:

from sqlalchemy import MetaData, create_engine, Table

metadata = MetaData()
engine = create_engine('sqlite:///Chinook_Sqlite.sqlite')

artist = Table('Artist', metadata, autoload=True, autoload_with=engine)


>>> artist.columns.keys()
['ArtistId', 'Name']

>>> from sqlalchemy import select
>>> s = select([artist]).limit(10)
>>> engine.execute(s).fetchall()
[(1, 'AC/DC'),
(2, 'Accept'),
(3, 'Aerosmith'),
(4, 'Alanis Morissette'),
(5, 'Alice In Chains'),
(6, 'Ant\xf4nio Carlos Jobim'),
(7, 'Apocalyptica'),
(8, 'Audioslave'),
(9, 'BackBeat'),
(10, 'Billy Cobham')]


>>> album = Table('Album', metadata, autoload=True, autoload_with=engine)
>>> metadata.tables['album']
      Column('AlbumId', INTEGER(), table=<album>, primary_key=True, nullable=False),
      Column('Title', NVARCHAR(length=160), table=<album>, nullable=False),
      Column('ArtistId', INTEGER(), table=<album>, nullable=False),
>>> album.foreign_keys

Interestingly, the foreign key to the Artist table has not been reflected. This occurred because the two tables weren’t reflected at the same time, and the target of the foreign key was not present during the reflection. In an effort to not leave you in a semi-broken state, SQLAlchemy discarded the one-sided relationship. We can use what we learned in Chapter 1 to add the missing ForeignKey constraint, and restore the relationship:

from sqlalchemy import ForeignKeyConstraint

    ForeignKeyConstraint(['ArtistId'], ['artist.ArtistId'])

It would be quite a bit of work to repeat the reflection process for each individual table in our database. Fortunately, SQLAlchemy lets you reflect an entire database at once.

5.2 Reflecting a Whole Database

>>> metadata.reflect(bind=engine)
>>> metadata.tables.keys()
dict_keys(['InvoiceLine', 'Employee', 'Invoice', 'album', 'Genre',
           'PlaylistTrack', 'Album', 'Customer', 'MediaType', 'Artist',
           'Track', 'artist', 'Playlist'])

Album and Artist tables are listed twice but with different case letters. This is due to that fact that SQLAlchemy reflects the tables as they are named, and in the Chinook database they are uppercase (the Table objects we created manually are in lowercase). Due to SQLite’s handling of case sensitivity, both the lower- and uppercase names point to the same tables in the database.

5.3 Query Building with Reflected Objects

As of version 1.0 of SQLAlchemy, we cannot reflect CheckConstraints, comments, or triggers. You also can’t reflect client-side defaults or an association between a sequence and a column. However, it is possible to add them manually using the methods described in Chapter 1.


Chapter 6 - Defining Schema with SQLAlchemy ORM

You define schema slightly different when using the SQLAlchemy ORM because it is focused around user-defined data objects instead of the schema of the underlying database.

  • In SQLAlchemy Core, we created a metadata container and then declared a Table object associated with that metadata.
  • In SQLAlchemy ORM, we are going to define a class that inherits from a special base class generated by declarative_base().
    • declarative_base() can return a base class with a metadata container and a mapper that maps our class to a database table. (Full API)
    • Instances of the ORM class are mapped to records in that table if they have been saved.

6.1 Defining Tables via ORM Classes

A proper class for use with the ORM must do four things:

  • Inherit from the base class generated by declarative_base().
  • Contain __tablename__, which is the table name to be used in the database.
  • Contain one or more attributes that are Column objects.
  • Ensure one or more attributes make up a primary key.
from sqlalchemy import Table, Column, Integer, Numeric, String
from sqlalchemy.ext.declarative import declarative_base

Base = declarative_base()

class Cookie(Base):
    __tablename__ = 'cookies'

    cookie_id = Column(Integer(), primary_key=True)
    cookie_name = Column(String(50), index=True)
    cookie_recipe_url = Column(String(255))
    cookie_sku = Column(String(55))
    quantity = Column(Integer())
    unit_cost = Column(Numeric(12, 2))
>>> Cookie.__table__
Table('cookies', MetaData(bind=None),
    Column('cookie_id', Integer(), table=<cookies>, primary_key=True, nullable=False),
    Column('cookie_name', String(length=50), table=<cookies>),
    Column('cookie_recipe_url', String(length=255), table=<cookies>),
    Column('cookie_sku', String(length=15), table=<cookies>),
    Column('quantity', Integer(), table=<cookies>),
    Column('unit_cost', Numeric(precision=12, scale=2), table=<cookies>), 

Additional keywords work the same in both ORM and Core schemas:

from datetime import datetime
from sqlalchemy import DateTime

class User(Base):
    __tablename__ = 'users'

    user_id = Column(Integer(), primary_key=True)
    username = Column(String(15), nullable=False, unique=True)
    email_address = Column(String(255), nullable=False)
    phone = Column(String(20), nullable=False)
    password = Column(String(25), nullable=False)
    created_on = Column(DateTime(), default=datetime.now)
    updated_on = Column(DateTime(), default=datetime.now, onupdate=datetime.now)

Keys, constraints and indices can also be added by using __table_args__ attribute:

class SomeDataClass(Base):
    __tablename__ = 'somedatatable'
    __table_args__ = (ForeignKeyConstraint(['id'], ['other_table.id']),
                      CheckConstraint(unit_cost >= 0.00, name='unit_cost_positive'))

6.2 Relationships

The ORM uses a similar ForeignKey column to constrain and link the objects; however, it also uses a relationship directive to provide a property that can be used to access the related object. This does add some extra database usage and overhead when using the ORM; however, the pluses of having this capability far outweigh the drawbacks.

from sqlalchemy import ForeignKey, Boolean
from sqlalchemy.orm import relationship, backref

class Order(Base):
    __tablename__ = 'orders'

    order_id = Column(Integer(), primary_key=True)
    user_id = Column(Integer(), ForeignKey('users.user_id'))
    shipped = Column(Boolean(), default=False)

    user = relationship("User", backref=backref('orders', order_by=order_id))
  • We can get the User object related to this Order object by accessing the user property.
  • This relationship also establishes an orders property on the User class via the backref keyword argument, which is ordered by the order_id.

The relationship directive needs a target class for the relationship, and can optionally include a back reference to be added to target class. SQLAlchemy knows to use the ForeignKey we defined that matches the class we defined in the relationship. In the preceding example, the ForeignKey(users.user_id), which has the users table’s user_id column, maps to the User class via the __tablename__ attribute of users and forms the relationship.

It is also possible to establish a one-to-one relationship by uselist=False argument:

class LineItem(Base):
    __tablename__ = 'line_items'


    cookie = relationship("Cookie", uselist=False)

6.3 Persisiting the Schema

你可以先 reflect 出来,修改一番然后再存回 database 里面(意义不大,不如直接改 schema,就举个例子),或是转存到另外一个 database 里。比如你可以从线上库 reflect 出来,然后转存到 in-memory 库做测试:

from sqlalchemy import create_engine

engine = create_engine('sqlite:///:memory:')


Chapter 7 - Working with Data via SQLAlchemy ORM

7.1 The session

A session:

  • Wraps a database connection via an engine,
  • Provides an identity map for objects that you load via the session or associate with the session.
    • The identity map is a cache-like data structure that contains a unique list of objects determined by the object’s table and primary key.
  • Wraps a transaction, and that transaction will be open until the session is committed or rolled back.

To create a new session, SQLAlchemy provides the sessionmaker class to ensure that sessions can be created with the same parameters throughout an application. The sessionmaker factory should be used just once in your application global scope, and treated like a configuration setting.

from sqlalchemy import create_engine
from sqlalchemy.orm import sessionmaker

engine = create_engine('sqlite:///:memory:')

Session = sessionmaker(bind=engine)

session = Session()

7.2 Inserting Data

7.2.1 session.commit()

cc_cookie = Cookie(cookie_name='chocolate chip',


When we create the instance of the Cookie class and then add it to the session, nothing is sent to the database. It’s not until we call commit() on the session that anything is sent to the database. When commit() is called, the following happens:

  1. INFO:sqlalchemy.engine.base.Engine:BEGIN (implicit)
  2. INFO:sqlalchemy.engine.base.Engine:INSERT INTO cookies (cookie_name, cookie_recipe_url, cookie_sku, quantity, unit_cost) VALUES (?, ?, ?, ?, ?)
  3. INFO:sqlalchemy.engine.base.Engine:('chocolate chip', 'http://some.aweso.me/cookie/recipe.html', 'CC01', 12, 0.5)
  4. INFO:sqlalchemy.engine.base.Engine:COMMIT

P.S. If you want to see the details of what is happening here, you can add echo=True to your create_engine statement as a keyword argument after the connection string. Make sure to only do this for testing, and don’t use echo=True in production!

First, a fresh transaction is started, and the record is inserted into the database. Next, the engine sends the values of our insert statement. Finally, the transaction is committed to the database, and the transaction is closed. This method of processing is often called the Unit of Work pattern.

7.2.2 session.flush()

Full API:

Flush all the object changes to the database.

Writes out all pending object creations, deletions and modifications to the database as INSERTs, DELETEs, UPDATEs, etc. Operations are automatically ordered by the Session’s unit of work dependency solver.

Database operations will be issued in the current transactional context and do not affect the state of the transaction, unless an error occurs, in which case the entire transaction is rolled back. You may flush() as often as you like within a transaction to move changes from Python to the database’s transaction buffer.

For autocommit Sessions with no active manual transaction, flush() will create a transaction on the fly that surrounds the entire set of operations into the flush.

注意 commit() 是一个完整的 Unit of Work,包括完整的 transaction creation 和 commit;flush() 相当于是把当前已有的 operations append 到 transaction,但是并不会 commit。

dcc = Cookie(cookie_name='dark chocolate chip', ...)
mol = Cookie(cookie_name='molasses', ...)


# session.commit() 

7.2.3 session.bulk_save_object()

Full API:

Perform a bulk save of the given list of objects.

The bulk save feature allows mapped objects to be used as the source of simple INSERT and UPDATE operations which can be more easily grouped together into higher performing “executemany” operations; the extraction of data from the objects is also performed using a lower-latency process that ignores whether or not attributes have actually been modified in the case of UPDATEs, and also ignores SQL expressions.

The objects as given are not added to the session and no additional state is established on them, unless the return_defaults flag is also set, in which case primary key attributes and server-side default values will be populated.

c1 = Cookie(cookie_name='peanut butter', ...)
c2 = Cookie(cookie_name='oatmeal raisin', ...)


注意,”object added to the session” 的一个后果是:比如说 session.add(c1) 后,session 会 update c1 的状态,比如 auto-generated primary key 会设置到 c1 的字段里。bulk_save_object() 并没有 add objects to session,所以你无法获取到更新后的属性,比如 print(c1.cookie_id) 就打不出任何值。

另外 bulk_save_object() 会快过 multiple add()

7.3 Querying Data

from sqlalchemy.ext.declarative import declarative_base

Base = declarative_base()

class Cookie(Base):
    __tablename__ = 'cookies'


cookies = session.query(Cookie).all()

# output: 
    Cookie(cookie_name='chocolate chip', ......),
    Cookie(cookie_name='dark chocolate chip', ......),
    Cookie(cookie_name='molasses', ......),
    Cookie(cookie_name='peanut butter', ......),
    Cookie(cookie_name='oatmeal raisin', ......)
  • session.query(ReflectClass) returns an iterable of results.
    • query().all() returns a list of this iterable.
    • query().first() return the first result of this Query or None if the result doesn’t contain any row..
    • query().one() return exactly one result or raise an exception.
    • query().scalar() return the first element of the first result or None if no rows present. If multiple rows are returned, raises MultipleResultsFound.
  • See SQLAlchemy 1.2 Documentation - Query API

7.3.1 Controlling the Columns in the Query

session.query(Cookie.cookie_name, Cookie.quantity)

7.3.2 Ordering


from sqlalchemy import desc

7.3.3 Limiting

session.query(Cookie).order_by(Cookie.quantity)[:2]  # ineffecient with a large result set


7.3.4 Built-In SQL Functions and Labels

from sqlalchemy import func

session.query(func.sum(Cookie.quantity)).scalar()  # Returns a scalar, 128

session.query(func.count(Cookie.cookie_name)).first()  # Returns a tuple, (5,)

Using functions such as count() and sum() will end up returning tuples or results with column names like count_1 (Similarly, the 4th count() function would be count_4). This simply is not as explicit and clear as we should be in our naming, especially when surrounded with other Python code. Thankfully, SQLAlchemy provides a way to fix this via the label() function.

rec_count = session.query(func.count(Cookie.cookie_name).label('inventory_count')).first()  # Now returns a dict

print(rec_count.keys())  # ['inventory_count']
print(rec_count.inventory_count)  # 5

7.3.5 Filtering

session.query(Cookie).filter(Cookie.cookie_name == 'chocolate chip').first()

session.query(Cookie).filter_by(cookie_name='chocolate chip').first()
  • filter() needs a filter expression
  • filter_by() needs keyword arguments from the class attributes

7.3.6 Operators

session.query(Cookie.cookie_name, 'SKU-' + Cookie.cookie_sku).all()  # add a 'SKU-' prefix to the `cookie_sku` column in the result

from sqlalchemy import cast
session.query(Cookie.cookie_name, cast((Cookie.quantity * Cookie.unit_cost), Numeric(12,2)).label('inv_cost'))

7.3.7 Conjunctions

3 ways to add multiple filtering conditions:

  • Chain multiple filter() clauses together
  • Use Boolean operators
  • Use conjunctions and_(), or_(), and not_().
    • Often more readable and functional
query = session.query(Cookie).filter(
    Cookie.quantity > 23,
    Cookie.unit_cost < 0.40

from sqlalchemy import and_, or_, not_
query = session.query(Cookie).filter(
        Cookie.quantity.between(10, 50),

7.4 Updating Data

2 ways:

  • Get the record object out from session.query(); change its state; then session.commit() since this object is attached to this session
  • query.update()
query = session.query(Cookie)
cc_cookie = query.filter(Cookie.cookie_name == "chocolate chip").first()
cc_cookie.quantity = cc_cookie.quantity + 120
query = session.query(Cookie)
query = query.filter(Cookie.cookie_name == "chocolate chip")
query.update({Cookie.quantity: Cookie.quantity + 120})

7.5 Deleting Data

2 ways:

  • session.delete(record_object); session.commit()
  • query.delete()
query = session.query(Cookie)
query = query.filter(Cookie.cookie_name == "dark chocolate chip")
dcc_cookie = query.one()
query = session.query(Cookie)
query = query.filter(Cookie.cookie_name == "molasses")

7.6 Joins

query = session.query(Order.order_id, 
                      User.username User.phone, 
                      LineItem.quantity, LineItem.extended_cost)
query = query.join(User).join(LineItem).join(Cookie)
results = query.filter(User.username == 'cookiemon').all()
query = session.query(User.username, func.count(Order.order_id))
query = query.outerjoin(Order).group_by(User.username)

7.7 Conditional Chaining

def get_orders_by_customer(cust_name, shipped=None, details=False):
    query = session.query(Order.order_id, User.username, User.phone)
    query = query.join(User)
    if details:
        query = query.add_columns(Cookie.cookie_name, LineItem.quantity, LineItem.extended_cost)
        query = query.join(LineItem).join(Cookie)

    if shipped is not None:
        query = query.where(Order.shipped == shipped)
    results = query.filter(User.username == cust_name).all()
    return results

7.8 Raw Queries

from sqlalchemy import text

query = session.query(User).filter(text("username='cookiemon'"))

Chapter 8 - Understanding the Session and Exceptions

8.1 The SQLAlchemy Session

4 possible states of a record object in a session:

  • Transient: The instance is not in session, and is not in the database.
  • Pending: The instance has been added to the session with add(), but hasn’t been flushed or committed.
  • Persistent: The instance has a corresponding record in the database.
  • Detached: The instance is no longer attached to the session, but has a record in the database.

Suppose we have a cc_cookie object, to see the instance state, we can use the powerful inspect() method provided by SQLAlchemy:

from sqlalchemy import inspect

insp = inspect(cc_cookie)

for state in ['transient', 'pending', 'persistent', 'detached']:
    print('{:>10}: {}'.format(state, getattr(insp, state)))

If we just created the cc_cookie object:

cc_cookie = Cookie('chocolate chip',
                   'CC01', 12, 0.50)

The inspect result would be:

 transient: True
   pending: False
persistent: False
  detached: False 

After session.add(cc_cookie):

 transient: False
   pending: True
persistent: False
  detached: False 

After session.commit():

 transient: False
   pending: False
persistent: True
  detached: False 

Finally, to get cc_cookie into the detached state, we want to call the expunge() method on the session. You might do this if you are moving data from one session to another. One case in which you might want to move data from one session to another is when you are archiving or consolidating data from your primary database to your data warehouse:


Then its states would be:

 transient: False
   pending: False
persistent: False
  detached: True 

We can also use the inspector to see the history of an instance prior to committing it. First, we’ll add our object back to the session and change the cookie_name attribute:

cc_cookie.cookie_name = 'Change chocolate chip'

Then inspect(cc_cookie).modified would be True and we can use the inspector’s attrs collection to find what has changed:

for attr, attr_state in insp.attrs.items():
    if attr_state.history.has_changes():
        print('{}: {}'.format(attr, attr_state.value))
        print('History: {}\n'.format(attr_state.history))

# output: 
cookie_name: Change chocolate chip
History: History(added=['Change chocolate chip'], unchanged=(), deleted=())

8.2 Exceptions

  • MultipleResultsFound Exception
    • This exception occurs when we use the .one() query method, but get more than one result back.
  • DetachedInstanceError
    • This exception occurs when we attempt to access an attribute on an instance that needs to be loaded from the database, but the instance we are using is not currently attached to the database.
  • ObjectDeletedError, StaleDataError, and Concur rentModificationError
    • Are related to information differing between the instance, the session, and the database.

A DetachedInstanceError example:

# ----- The Reflection ----- # 
class Order(Base):
    __tablename__ = 'orders'

    user = relationship("User", backref=backref('orders', order_by=order_id))

class LineItem(Base):
    __tablename__ = 'line_items'

    order = relationship("Order", backref=backref('line_items', order_by=line_item_id))
    cookie = relationship("Cookie", uselist=False)

# ----- Construct the Order record ----- # 

cookiemon = User('cookiemon', 'mon@cookie.com', '111-111-1111', 'password')

o1 = Order()
o1.user = cookiemon

cc = session.query(Cookie).filter(Cookie.cookie_name == "Change chocolate chip").one()
line1 = LineItem(order=o1, cookie=cc, quantity=2, extended_cost=1.00)


# ----- Query the constructed Order ----- # 

order = session.query(Order).first()
order.line_items  # DetachedInstanceError

Because Order.line_items is a relationship, by default it doesn’t load all that data until you ask for it. In our case, we detached the instance from the session and the relationship doesn’t have a session to execute a query to load the itself, and it raises the DetachedInstanceError.

8.3 Transactions

Transactions are a group of statements that we need to succeed or fail as a group. When we first create a session, it is not connected to the database. When we undertake our first action with the session such as a query, it starts a connection and a transaction. This means that by default, we don’t need to manually create transactions. However, if we need to handle any exceptions where part of the transaction succeeds and another part fails or where the result of a transaction creates an exception, then we must know how to control the transaction manually.


def ship_it(order_id):
    order = session.query(Order).get(order_id)
    for li in order.line_items:
        li.cookie.quantity = li.cookie.quantity - li.quantity

    order.shipped = True


    print("shipped order ID: {}".format(order_id))

We have a constraint on Cookie.quantity that it cannot go below 0. If violated, an IntegrityError will be raised but only at the session.commit() statement–the session.add(li.cookie) statement will be fine.

This actually breaks our current session. If we attempt to issue any more statements via the session such as a query to get the list of cookies, we’ll get the output:

print(session.query(Cookie.cookie_name, Cookie.quantity).all())

InvalidRequestError                  Traceback (most recent call last)
<ipython-input-8-90b93364fb2d> in <module>()
---> 1 print(session.query(Cookie.cookie_name, Cookie.quantity).all())


InvalidRequestError: This Session's transaction has been rolled back due to a
previous exception during flush.

注意这里这个 error message 是说 session.query(Cookie.cookie_name, Cookie.quantity).all() 这个 transaction 被 roll back 了。

To recover from this session state, we need to manually roll back the ship_it transaction.

from sqlalchemy.exc import IntegrityError

def ship_it(order_id):
    order = session.query(Order).get(order_id)
    for li in order.line_items:
        li.cookie.quantity = li.cookie.quantity - li.quantity

    order.shipped = True

        print("shipped order ID: {}".format(order_id))
    except IntegrityError as error:
        print('ERROR: {!s}'.format(error.orig))

Chapter 9 - Testing with SQLAlchemy ORM

9.1 Testing with a Test Database

# ----- db.py ----- # 

from sqlalchemy.ext.declarative import declarative_base

Base = declarative_base()

class DataAccessLayer:
    def __init__(self):
        self.engine = None
        self.conn_string = 'some conn string'

    def connect(self):
        self.engine = create_engine(self.conn_string)
        self.Session = sessionmaker(bind=self.engine)

dal = DataAccessLayer()

class Cookie(Base):

class User(Base):

# ----- app.py ----- # 

def get_orders_by_customer(cust_name, shipped=None, details=False):
# ----- test_app.py ----- # 

import unittest
from db import dal

class TestApp(unittest.TestCase):
    def setUpClass(cls):
        dal.conn_string = 'sqlite:///:memory:'
        dal.session = dal.Session()

    # Add some records to db
    def prep_db(session):

    def setUp(self):
        dal.session = dal.Session()

    def tearDown(self):
        dal.session.rollback()  # Brilliant!

    def test_orders_by_customer(self):
        # Test goes here
  • setUpClass runs only once, prior to all the tests
  • setUp and tearDown run before and after each test correspondingly

9.2 Using Mocks

Normally when I am going to mock out some part of the query, I still create the in-memory database, but I don’t load any data into it, and I mock out the database connection itself. This allows me to control what is returned by the execute() and “fetch” methods (E.g. fetchone() for one(); fetchall() for all()).

Chapter 10 - Reflection with SQLAlchemy ORM and Automap

This chapter we talk about how to reflect a whole database schema into ORM classes with automap.

Reflection via automap is a very useful tool; however, as of version 1.0 of SQLAlchemy we cannot reflect CheckConstraints, comments, or triggers. You also can’t reflect client-side defaults or an association between a sequence and a column. However, it is possible to add them manually.

10.1 Reflecting a Database with Automap

In order to reflect a database, instead of using the declarative_base we’ve been using with the ORM so far, we’re going to use the automap_base:

from sqlalchemy.ext.automap import automap_base
from sqlalchemy import create_engine

engine = create_engine('sqlite:///Chinook_Sqlite.sqlite')

Base = automap_base()
Base.prepare(engine, reflect=True)
>>> Base.classes.keys()
['Album', 'Customer', 'Playlist', 'Artist',
 'Track', 'Employee', 'MediaType', 'InvoiceLine',
 'Invoice', 'Genre']
Artist = Base.classes.Artist

results = session.query(Artist).limit(10)

10.2 Reflected Relationships

Automap can automatically reflect and establish many-to-one, one-to-many, and many-to-many relationships. When automap creates a relationship, it creates a <related_object>_collection property on the object. E.g.:

artist = session.query(Artist).first()
for album in artist.album_collection:
    print('{} - {}'.format(artist.Name, album.Title))

PART III - Alembic (Migration Tool with Version Control)

Chapter 11 - Getting Started with Alembic

Alembic provides a way for us to programmically create and perform migrations to handle changes to the database that we’ll need to make as our application evolves. For example, we might add columns to our tables or remove attributes from our models. We might also add entirely new models, or split an existing model into multiple models. Alembic provides a way for us to preform these types of changes by leveraging the power of SQLAlchemy.

pip install alembic

Chapter 12 - Building Migrations

Chapter 13 - Controlling Alembic

PART IV - Advanced Topics

Chapter 14 - Cookbook

14.1 Hybrid Attributes

“hybrid” means the attribute has distinct behaviors defined at the class level and at the instance level.

from datetime import datetime
from sqlalchemy import Column, Integer, Numeric, String, create_engine
from sqlalchemy.ext.declarative import declarative_base
from sqlalchemy.ext.hybrid import hybrid_property, hybrid_method
from sqlalchemy.orm import sessionmaker

engine = create_engine('sqlite:///:memory:')

Base = declarative_base()

class Cookie(Base):
    __tablename__ = 'cookies'

    cookie_id = Column(Integer, primary_key=True)
    cookie_name = Column(String(50), index=True)
    cookie_recipe_url = Column(String(255))
    cookie_sku = Column(String(55))
    quantity = Column(Integer())
    unit_cost = Column(Numeric(12, 2))

    def inventory_value(self):
        return self.unit_cost * self.quantity

    def bake_more(self, min_quantity):
        return self.quantity < min_quantity

Session = sessionmaker(bind=engine)

At the class level:

>>> print(Cookie.inventory_value < 10.00)
cookies.unit_cost * cookies.quantity < :param_1
>>> print(Cookie.bake_more(12))
cookies.quantity < :quantity_1

We can see that the hybrid property and hybrid method call were expanded into valid SQL clauses. This means that we can filter, order by, group by, and use database functions on these properties and method calls.

At the instance level:

session = Session()

dcc = Cookie(cookie_name='dark chocolate chip',

>>> dcc.inventory_value
>>> dcc.bake_more(12)

You can see that when used on an instance, inventory_value and bake_more executed the Python code specified in the class.

Now we can use both class level and instance level:

from sqlalchemy import desc

for cookie in session.query(Cookie).order_by(desc(Cookie.inventory_value)):
    print('{:>20} - {:.2f}'.format(cookie.cookie_name, cookie.inventory_value))

for cookie in session.query(Cookie).filter(Cookie.bake_more(12)):
    print('{:>20} - {}'.format(cookie.cookie_name, cookie.quantity))

14.2 Association Proxy

An association proxy is a pointer across a relationship to a specific attribute; it can be used to make it easier to access an attribute across a relationship in code. For example, this would come in handy if we wanted a list of ingredient names that are used to make our cookies.

class Ingredient(Base):
    __tablename__ = 'ingredients'

    ingredient_id = Column(Integer, primary_key=True)
    name = Column(String(255), index=True)

class Cookie(Base):
    __tablename__ = 'cookies'


    ingredients = relationship("Ingredient", secondary=cookieingredients_table)

session = Session()

cc_cookie = Cookie(cookie_name='chocolate chip', ...)

flour = Ingredient(name='Flour')
sugar = Ingredient(name='Sugar')
egg = Ingredient(name='Egg')
cc = Ingredient(name='Chocolate Chips')

cc_cookie.ingredients.extend([flour, sugar, egg, cc])


Now, if we want to list the names of all the ingredients, we have to iterate through all the ingredients and get the name attribute:

>>> [ingredient.name for ingredient in cc_cookie.ingredients]
['Flour', 'Sugar', 'Egg', 'Chocolate Chips']

It would be easier if we establish an association proxy to the ingredients’ name attribute that we can reference as an attribute of Cookie:

class Cookie(Base):
    __tablename__ = 'cookies'


    ingredients = relationship("Ingredient", secondary=cookieingredients_table)

    ingredient_names = association_proxy('ingredients', 'name')
>>> cc_cookie.ingredient_names
['Flour', 'Sugar', 'Egg', 'Chocolate Chips']

We can also add a new ingredient using the association proxy:


When we do this, the association proxy creates a new ingredient using the Ingredient.__init__ for us automatically.

14.3 Integrating SQLAlchemy with Flask

pip install flask-sqlalchemy

14.4 SQLAcodegen (自动反射生成 Model 类的文件)

SQLAcodegen is a tool that reads the structure of an existing database and generates the appropriate SQLAlchemy model code, using the declarative style if possible.

pip install sqlacodegen

sqlacodegen sqlite:///Chinook_Sqlite.sqlite
sqlacodegen sqlite:///Chinook_Sqlite.sqlite --tables Artist,Track > db.py

Chapter 15 - Where to Go from Here

Further reading list:

  • If you want to know more about Flask and SQLAlchemy, make sure to read Flask Web Development by Miguel Grinberg.
  • If you are interested in learning more about testing or how to use pytest, Alex Grönholm has several excellent blog posts on effective testing strategies: Part 1 and Part 2.
  • If you want to know more about SQLAlchemy plug-ins and extensions, check out Awesome SQLAlchemy by Hong Minhee. This resource has a great list of SQLAlchemy-related technologies.
  • If you are interested in learning more about the internals of SQLAlchemy, this has been covered by Mike Bayer in The Architecture of Open Source Applications.