1 minute read

Prerequisite: Complemented Lattice

Definition 3.1: Let $L$ be a bounded lattice.

  1. An element $x \in L$ is said to be complemented (by $y$) if $\exists y \in L$ such that $x \wedge y = \bot$ and $x \vee y = \top$.
  2. We call $y$, also denoted by $x^\ast$, the complement of $x$.
  3. Accordingly, lattice $R$ is said to be complemented if $\forall x \in L$, $x$ has a complement.

Theorem 3.3: In a bounded, distributive lattice, every element has at most one complement.

Proof: Consider a bounded distributive lattice $L$ and elements $a,b,c \in R$. Suppose $b,c$ are both complements of $a$. We have:

\[c = c \vee \bot = c \vee (a \wedge b) = (c \vee a) \wedge (c \vee b) = \top \wedge (c \vee b) = c \vee b,\]

which implies $b \leq c$.

A similar argument can show that $c \leq b$. Therefore $b = c$ and there is only one complement of $a$. $\blacksquare$

Boolean Lattices

Definition 3.4: A lattice $L$ is said to be Boolean if it is bounded, distributive, and complemented.

The most common example of a Boolean lattice is the powerset Boolean lattice. Given a positive integer $n$ and a set $[n] = \lbrace 1,2,\dots,n \rbrace$, the poset $B_n=(2^{[n]}, \subseteq)$ is called a powerset boolean lattice of order $n$.

E.g. when $n=2$, $B_2 = \big\lbrace \varnothing, \, \lbrace 1 \rbrace, \, \lbrace 2 \rbrace, \, \lbrace 1,2 \rbrace \big\rbrace$

Some textbooks simply call $B_n$ the “Boolean lattice of order $n$”.

Boolean Algebras

Definition 3.6: A Boolean algebra is a structure $(L, \wedge, \vee, \ast, \bot, \top)$ such that:

  • $(L, \wedge, \vee, \bot, \top)$ is a Boolean lattice
  • $\ast$ is the unary complement operation.

The most common example of a Boolean algebra is the powerset Boolean algebra such as $(B_n, \cap, \cup, \overline{}, \varnothing, [n])$


  • https://arxiv.org/abs/2307.16671
  • https://moraschini.github.io/files/teaching/OLBA.pdf