4 minute read

Part I - The Mechanics of Change

Chapter 1 - Changing Software

Code behavior:

  • If we have to modify code (and HTML kind of counts as code), we could be changing behavior.
  • If we are only adding code and calling it, we are often adding behavior.
    • Adding a method doesn’t change behavior unless the method is called somehow.

Four primary reasons to change software:

  1. Adding a feature
  2. Fixing a bug
  3. Improving the design
    • The act of improving design without changing its behavior is called refactoring.
  4. Optimizing resource usage
    • With both refactoring and optimization, we say, “We’re going to keep functionality exactly the same when we make changes, but we are going to change something else.”
      • In refactoring, the “something else” is program structure; we want to make it easier to maintain.
      • In optimization, the “something else” is some resource used by the program, usually time or memory.

The difference between good systems and bad ones is that,

  • In the good ones, you feel pretty calm after you’ve done that learning, and you are confident in the change you are about to make.
  • In poorly structured code, the move from figuring things out to making changes feels like jumping off a cliff to avoid a tiger. You hesitate and hesitate. “Am I ready to do it? Well, I guess I have to.”

Chapter 2 - Working with Feedback

Changes in a system can be made in two primary ways. I like to call them

  • Edit and Pray and
  • Cover and Modify.

Two types of testing:

  • “testing to attempt to show correctness”
  • “testing to detect change”
    • which serves as a software vise

A unit test that takes 1/10th of a second to run is a slow unit test.

A test is not a unit test if:

  1. It talks to a database.
  2. It communicates across a network.
  3. It touches the file system.
  4. You have to do special things to your environment (such as editing configuration files) to run it.

Tests that do these things aren’t bad. Often they are worth writing, and you generally will write them in unit test harnesses. However, it is important to be able to separate them from true unit tests so that you can keep a set of tests that you can run fast whenever you make changes.


  • When classes depend directly on things that are hard to use in a test, they are hard to modify and hard to work with.
  • Much legacy code work involves breaking dependencies so that change can be easier.
    • The Legacy Code Dilemma: When we change code, we should have tests in place. To put tests in place, we often have to change code.
    • When you break dependencies in legacy code, you often have to suspend your sense of aesthetics a bit. Some dependencies break cleanly; others end up looking less than ideal from a design point of view.

The Legacy Code Change Algorithm

  1. Identify change points.
    • Chapter 16, I Don’t Understand the Code Well Enough to Change It.
    • Chapter 17, My Application Has No Structure.
  2. Find test points.
    • Chapter 11, I Need to Make a Change. What Methods Should I Test?
    • Chapter 12, I Need to Make Many Changes in One Area. Do I Have to Break Dependencies for All the Classes Involved?
  3. Break dependencies.
    • Chapter 9, I Can’t Get This Class into a Test Harness.
    • Chapter 10, I Can’t Run This Method in a Test Harness.
    • Chapter 22, I Need to Change a Monster Method and I Can’t Write Tests for It.
    • Chapter 23, How Do I Know That I’m Not Breaking Anything?
  4. Write tests.
    • Chapter 13, I Need to Make a Change but I Don’t Know What Tests to Write.
    • Chapter 19, My Project is Not Object- Oriented. How Do I Make Safe Changes?
  5. Make changes and refactor.
    • Chapter 8, How Do I Add a Feature?
    • Chapter 21, I’m Changing the Same Code All Over the Place.
    • Chapter 20, This Class Is Too Big and I Don’t Want It to Get Any Bigger.
    • Chapter 22, I Need to Change a Monster Method and I Can’t Write Tests for It.

Chapter 3 - Sensing and Separation

Generally, when we want to get tests in place, there are two reasons to break dependencies: sensing and separation.

  1. Sensing: We break dependencies to sense when we can’t access values our code computes.
    • One dominant technique for sensing is Faking Collaborators.
    • A fake object is an object that impersonates some collaborator of your class when it is being tested.
    • Mock objects are fakes that perform assertions internally.
      • However, mock object frameworks are not available in all languages, and simple fake objects suffice in most situations.
  2. Separation: We break dependencies to separate when we can’t even get a piece of code into a test harness to run.
import junit.framework.*;

public class SaleTest extends TestCase {
	public void testDisplayAnItem() {
		FakeDisplay display = new FakeDisplay();
		Sale sale = new Sale(display);
		assertEquals("Milk $3.99", display.getLastLine());
	public void testDisplayAnItem2() {
		MockDisplay display = new MockDisplay();
		display.setExpectation("showLine", "Milk $3.99");
		Sale sale = new Sale(display);

Chapter 4 - The Seam Model

A seam is a place where you can alter behavior in your program without editing in that place.

比如要测一个大方法,这个大方法里面调用了一个小方法,我们想跳过这个小方法(比如因为它的作用是给外部系统发送消息,会很慢),一个可能的做法是:用一个空方法去覆盖掉这个小方法,这样我们在大方法里就不用去把这个小方法注释掉。调用这个小方法的那一行代码就是一个 seam,我们修改了大方法的 behavior without editing the call to the 小方法。

This seam is what I call an object seam. We were able to change the method that is called without changing the method that calls it. Object seams are available in object-oriented languages, and they are only one of many different kinds of seams.